Friday, March 20, 2020
Imigration From Mexico Free Online Research Papers Imigration is the process of moving away from your home country. Mexicans are well aware of the number of fellow citizens moving north. In August 2007 the El Paso Times reported that The United States is becoming more minority-dominated as the Hispanic population continues to grow through high birthrate and an immigration surge that experts say is changing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural fabric. In statistics released, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates more than half of the population is considered a racial or ethnic minority. Mexicans working in the United States are a huge source of income for Mexico. In 2004 alone, Mexicans received over $16 billion in money sent over the border. These remittances are MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest source of foreign currency, after oil exports (Ã¢â¬Å"Mexico Warns U.S.Ã¢â¬ ). Vicente Fox, who was MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s president from 2000-2006, strongly opposed a stronger wall being built across the U.S.-Mexico border and had, stated that it will Ã¢â¬Å"fall like the Berlin Wall.Ã¢â¬ Fox claimed that the wall would only cause more immigrant deaths near the border. MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s human rights commission has said that if the proposed wall passes the Congress, they will distribute 70,000 maps that show wall openings and nearby water sources in order to prevent deaths (Ã¢â¬Å"Mexico Warns U.S.Ã¢â¬ ). In 2005 alone, 500 died along the border, and two Mexican migrants were recently shot and killed by U.S. forces (Ã¢â¬Å"Mexico Warns U.S.Ã¢â¬ ). Unless a prison-style wall was constructed between the entire border of Mexico and the United States, a wall would be an ineffective way to control migration levels, because of MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s plans to distribute maps and guides to cross through rough terrain. Even if an indestructible wall was built, migrants could always get to the United States by boat. Stopping illegal migration by force is an impossible task that will only result in more deaths and a negative relationship with Mexico. Legal Immigration There are three main reasons why immigration controls are in place. First, there are not enough jobs available for everyone who wants one. Second, immigrants can increase the burden of government-funded programs, such as education and health care; and thirdly, to ensure the safety of US citizens. Those who want to enter the United States legally are required to undergo a long and complicated process in order to gain citizenship. The problem is that the United States does not have unlimited spaces available. Currently, there are over 3.5 million qualified people waiting to receive visas. Sometimes, the wait can be decades long, especially for those without a family member living in the United States. Mark Krikorian, the director of the Center for Immigration Studies, says that an immigrant applying for a visa today can expect to wait 40 years. To accommodate the extreme demand for United States citizenship, the supply of available visas needs to be raised. This policy is not working and only forces people into illegal status. By 1997, only 15% of Mexican immigrants had become US citizens. The Immigration and Naturalization Service estimates that about 1/5 of immigrants were illegally living within the US. A visa is a document required to enter a country for a certain period of time. In the United States, there are several types of visas available. The most commonly used types are transit visas, tourist visas, business visas, student visas, and immigrant visas. A transit visa is valid for less than three days, and is usually only used for passing through a country to get to another. A tourist visa is allowed only for vacationing, and prohibits any business activity. A business visa allows engagement in commerce, and is valid for a longer period of time than a tourist visa. A student visa is issued for students who are attending a higher learning institution. An immigrant visa, or a green card, is issued to those who intend to permanently stay in the country. Immigrant visas are issued for a short period of time, and assume that the resident will be issued a permanent resident ID card at a later time (Ã¢â¬Å"US Immigration PolicyÃ¢â¬ ). Another way immigrants become US citizens is through a process called naturalization. Naturalization occurs after a person has resided in the US for over five years. They also must demonstrate proficient English skills through the written history exam and have no criminal record. Immigrants must go through a multi-step process to become a legal immigrant. First, USCIS (US Citizen and Immigration Services) must approve a petition for immigration, which is usually done by a relative of employer living within the United States. After the petition is approved, the immigrant must apply for an immigrant visa. If a visa is available, the person can apply for permanent resident status. Permanent resident status can be obtained if an immediate family member living in the US petitions on the immigrantÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf, if a US employer petitions on your behalf, if a visa is awarded through the Ã¢â¬Å"visa lotteryÃ¢â¬ program, or if the person has resided in the United States since Jan 1, 1972. If the immigrant then passes an immigration test, which includes basic questions about US history and government, then they can become a legal US citizen. Illegal Immigration An illegal immigrant is a person who has either entered a country illegally or overstayed their legal available time. For Mexicans, the sheer number of people wanting to immigrate presents a challenge of moving legally. Currently, over 3.5 million qualified people are waiting to receive one of the available visas to immigrate into the US. Sometimes, especially for those lacking a family or employer to sponsor them, the wait can be decades long. This wait causes many to turn instead to illegal immigration. When an illegal immigrant is discovered, an apprehension is made, which is the act of capturing or arresting. This can result in a court date, deportation, or nothing at all. To make apprehensions along the 1,952 mile stretch of the US-Mexico border, officials usually request Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary deportationÃ¢â¬ of illegal immigrants. Voluntary deportation does not involve any transportation of illegal immigrants. It relies on the assumption that they will return to their homes, or attend their scheduled court dates. However, many of the people apprehended annually do not follow the directions of officials. In fact, three out of four illegal immigrants are not even caught Immigrants can be deported within the United States for two reasons. One, entering without inspection; or two, overstay of time in the United States. By 1996, the INS reported that 60% of immigrants entered illegally and 40% stayed illegally Because Mexico is so close, Mexican immigrants are inspected more thoroughly than immigrants from other countries. Mexicans only make up about half of the illegal immigrant population, 90% of those here illegally are from Mexico. (De Laet 54) Immigrants who are caught living within the United States are required to leave the country and wait 10 years before applying for a VISA. As with apprehensions, few immigrants are actually deported because the process is slow and costly. In the 1980s, court fees and manual deportation (driving or flying the person across the border) cost the government $35,000, which is more than a year of an Ivy League education Legal Immigration vs. Illegal Illegal immigrants can only receive Medicaid and limited food benefits. Because the government has no record of these people, they have little risk of federal detection. The benefits of legal immigration seem to strongly outweigh the disadvantages of it. Legal immigration allows benefits like social security, Medicare, Medicaid, welfare, food stamps, a minimum wage guarantee, and all rights guaranteed under the Constitution. The only drawback of legal immigration is tax payments. However, illegal immigrants are often paid lower wages Ã¢â¬Å"under the table,Ã¢â¬ which results in a lower gross income than the minimum wage with taxes. For a lower class immigrant, the amount required to pay in taxes is far less than the money they can receive in federal benefits. Many immigrants choose to enter the United States illegally before they can receive an available visa. Based on a New Immigrant Survey, which studied a sample of 1,134 immigrants who received permanent visas in 1996, 54% of them were living here illegally at an earlier date, either by crossing the US border (41%) or by overstaying their temporary visa (13%) (De Laet 34). This proves that over half of Mexican immigrants who became legal would rather wait through the process illegally in America than in Mexico. Living illegally in the United States presents a variety of problems. First, the only employers willing to hire an undocumented person usually pay below the minimum wage. Living off an income below the minimum wage, especially with dependents, almost always means poverty. In addition, there is always the risk of detection and deportation. Assimilation Many Mexican immigrants immigrate through a process called chain migration. Because this process allows large communities of immigrants to form, many hold on to the culture of Mexico and do not adapt to American culture. Assimilation, or a lack thereof, has caused much controversy within the United States. Some groups argue that America was built on immigration and cultural differences, while others believe that immigrants who do not learn the language and culture are actually deteriorating the culture of the United States. In order to become a legal US citizen, immigrants must prove an adequate proficiency in English through their US history exam. However, many are still more comfortable speaking their native language. To address concerns, several members of Congress have spoken about making English the official language of the United States. Currently, 23 states have adopted English as the state language. Arizona, which houses the third largest number of illegal immigrants, legally requires all government officials to speak English at all times in the workplace. Opponents of the law have called this a violation of the right to freedom of speech (Ã¢â¬Å"US Immigration PolicyÃ¢â¬ ). The poverty rate of foreign-born Americans is 70% higher than those born in the United States (De Laet 82). Because undocumented workers are usually not paid the minimum wage, they are often forced into poverty. The average migrant worker in the United States has an annual income of only $10,200. (De Laet 39) In conclusion, immigration has become a major problem in the United States. Living in El Paso I see this a lot on our news as well as in person. A big issue was that there were families crossing the border illegally just to gain access to social welfare here in the United States. Because of this, those who are legal citizens are getting their benefits lowered. This is a very controversial issue, and I too have mixed feelings about it. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s good that these people want to come to America to have a better life and that they have somewhere to turn to for help. However, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think itÃ¢â¬â¢s fair to those who live here and need help, to be turned down because there are so many more people needing help. Bibliography http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-10/05/content_5170147.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicente_Fox De Wenden, Catherine Wihtol. (Spring 2007)A world without borders? (International migration). In Queens Quarterly, 114, p8(4). Retrieved August 10, 2007, from Expanded Academic ASAP via Thomson Gale: http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?contentSet=IAC-Documentstype=retrievetabID=T002prodId=EAIMdocId=A164424500source=galeuserGroupName=nm_a_nmlascrversion=1.0 Meritz, D. (2007, August 10). Census Bureau: Minorities dominate 10% of U.S. counties, El Paso Times. americanprogress.org/issues/domestic/immigration?_kk=immigration%20policies_kt=d58ce4d1-7dde-4b0a-aa62-623a20b24e87 De Laet, D. (2000) U.S Immigration Policy in an age of rights, Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., Westport, CT nationalreview.com/comment/krikorian200401070923.asp uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis Research Papers on Imigration From MexicoThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This Nice19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraQuebec and CanadaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyTwilight of the UAWMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductDefinition of Export Quotas
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Common Latin Words Found in Genealogical Records Latin terms are often encountered by genealogists in early church records, as well as in many legal documents. You can learn to interpret the Latin language you encounter with by applying an understanding of keywordsÃ and phrases. Common genealogy terms, including record types, events, dates, and relationships are listed here, along with Latin words with similar meanings (i.e., words commonly used to indicate marriage, including marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock and unite). Latin Basics Latin is the mother language for many modern European languages, including English, French, Spanish and Italian. Therefore, Latin will be found used in the earlier records of most European countries, as well as in Roman Catholic records around the world. Latin Language Essentials The most important thing to look for in Latin words is the root, as it will give you the basic meaning of the word. The same Latin word may be found with multiple endings, depending on the way the word is used in the sentence. Different endings will be used if a word is masculine, feminine or neuter, as well as to indicate singular or plural forms of a word. The endings of Latin words can also vary depending on the grammatical usage of the words, with specific endings used to indicate a word used as the subject of the sentence, as a possessive, as the object of a verb, or used with a preposition. Common Latin Words Found in Genealogy Documents Record TypesBaptismal Register - matricula baptizatorum, liberCensus - censusChurch Records - parish matrica (parish registers)Death Register - certificato di morteMarriage Register - matrica (marriage register), bannorum (register of marriage banns), liberMilitary - militaris, bellicus Family EventsBaptism / Christening - baptismi, baptizatus, renatus, plutus, lautus, purgatus, ablutus, lustratioBirth - nati, natus, genitus, natales, ortus, oriundusBurial - sepulti, sepultus, humatus, humatioDeath - mortuus, defunctus, obitus, denatus, decessus, peritus, mors, mortis, obiit, decessitDivorce - divortiumMarriage - matrimonium, copulatio, copulati, conjuncti, nupti, sponsati, ligati, maritiMarriage (banns) - banni, proclamationes, denuntiationes RelationshipsAncestor - antecessor, patres (forefathers)Aunt - amita (paternal aunt); matertera, matris soror (maternal aunt)Brother - frater, frates gemelli (twin brothers)Brother-in-law - affinis, sororiusChild - ifans, filius (son of), filia (daughter of), puer, prolesCousin - sobrinus, generDaughter - filia, puella; filia innupta (unwed daughter); unigena (only begotten daughter)Descendant - proles, successioFather - pater (father), pater ignoratus (unknown father), novercus (stepfather)Grandchild - nepos ex fil, nepos (grandson); neptis (granddaughter)Grandfather - avus, pater patris (paternal grandfather)Grandmother - avia, socrus magna (maternal grandmother)Great-grandchild - pronepos (great grandson); proneptis (great granddaughter)Great-grandfather - proavus, abavus (2nd great grandfather), atavus (3rd great grandfather)Great-grandmother - proavia, proava, abavia (2nd great grandmother)Husband - uxor (spouse), maritus, sponsus, conjus, coniux, ligatus, virMother - materNiece /Nephew - amitini, filius fratris/sororis (nephew), filia fratris/sororis (niece)Orphan, Foundling - orbus, orbaParents - parentes, genitoresRelatives - propinqui (relatives); agnati, agnatus (paternal relatives); cognati, cognatus (maternal relatives); affines, affinitas (related by marriage, in-laws)Sister - soror, germana, glos (husbands sister)Sister-in-law - glorisSon - filius, natusSon-in-law - generUncle - avunculus (paternal uncle), patruus (maternal uncle)Wife - vxor/uxor (spouse), marita, conjux, sponsa, mulier, femina, consorsWidow - vidua, relictaWidower - viduas, relictus DatesDay - dies, dieMonth - mensis, mensesYear - annus, anno; often abbreviated Ao, AE or aEMorning - maneNight - nocte, vespere (evening)January - JanuariusFebruary - FebruariusMarch - MartiusApril - AprilisMay - MaiusJune - Junius, IuniusJuly - Julius, Iulius, QuinctilisAugust - AugustusSeptember - September, Septembris, 7ber, VIIberOctober - October, Octobris, 8ber, VIIIberNovember - November, Novembris, 9ber, IXberDecember - December, Decembris, 10ber, Xber Other Common Latin Genealogical TermsAnd others - et alii (et. al)Anno Domini (A.D.) - in the year of our LordArchive - archiviaCatholic church - ecclesia catholicaCemetery (graveyard) - cimiterium, coemeteriumGenealogy - genealogiaIndex - indiceHousehold - familiaName, given - nomen, dictus (named), vulgo vocatus (alias)Name, surname (family name) - cognomen, agnomen (also nickname)Name, maiden - look for from or of to indicate maiden namenata (born), ex (from), de (of)Obit - (he or she) diedObit sine prole (o.s.p.) - (he or she) died without offspringParish - parochia, pariochialisParish priest - parochusTestes - witnessesTown - urbeVillage - vico, pagusVidelicet - namelyWill/Testament - testamentum
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Space Exploration - Research Paper Example The pen worked and also enjoyed some modest success at a novelty item back here on earth. The Soviet Union, faced with the same problem, used a pencil. ABSTRACT NASA and its voluminous funding by the US government have been burning questions from day one. While the proponents of NASA funding have a firm belief that even a penny invested in its prolific research programs will reap insurmountable benefits for the world and humanity in general, the people who condemn NASA and its so-called good for nothing activities have a strong contention that that the profusion of funds that NASA uses are neither worth it nor serviceable for mankind. In this research paper we try to analyse both sides of the argument and try to reach a conclusion as to why the US government should work to dilate the funding of NASA programs, and what should be the role of NASA administration in this regard. NASA AND ITS PROJECT HISTORY In the period starting from 1958 till 2008, the total spending on NASA has been $471.23 billion dollars, which makes an average of $9.06 billion per year. NASA's budget for FY 2008 sums up to $17.318 billion, which is almost 0.6% of the $2.9 trillion United States federal budget for the year, and almost about 35% total academic scientific research spending in the United States. These figures might look huge but the point of consideration is that they have enabled NASA to provide humanity with some emphatic developments and research successes. The most prominent discoveries and developments of NASA are the Pioneer 10, Voyager 1 and 2, Hubble Telescope, Space Shuttle Program, Apollo 13, Mars Pathfinder, and Moon Landing. These benchmarks have proved that the funding provided to the agency was fully utilized for productive purposes. These days there is a contention about whether NASA would be able to carry out on its latest Constellation Program that aims at retiring the space shuttle this year, replacing it Orion (capsule- based vehicles), and luner landers and Space Launch System, etc. But all these prospects rest on the simple debate that whether the amount being spent in this area is really worth it, especially when American debt is making life tougher for the Finance Ministry day in and day out. THE DARK SIDE OF NASA OPERATIONS: It is a known fact that most of NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s projects face huge research flaws and take a lot of effort and financial input to rectify those flaws. For example, the Space Launch system that is currently being worked on has billion dollars and still, there are massive security and sustainability issues popping up that place doubts in the minds of the government as to whether the mission would remain viable or not. Another major loss incurred by NASA was the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter in 1999 in which $327.6 million was invested for the orbiter and Lander and $193.1 million was invested for spacecraft development. Also, $91.7 mi llion and $42.8 million were incurred in launching the mission and operating the activities respectively. This shows that the NASA operations and research efforts, no matter how object oriented they are, always carry huge risks that could not be averted at any cost. This, however, can only be considered an overgeneralization because the success rate of some of NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s operations is very high. For example, NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s launch service program enjoys 98% success rate that is unparalleled. Similarly, the ULA, United Launch Alliance, has made 50 Delta II launches with 100% success rate completing a wide array of exceptionally imperative science missions. Also with the long list of accomplishments like those mentioned above,
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Should Service-Learning be a Requirement for College Graduation - Essay Example Service learning should be a requirement and part for college graduation due to a number of reasons as below: One reason is that a service-learning program enhances learning abilities to students. This program not only improves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision-making abilities and critical thinking but also set up them in the future, furthermore this programs helps student to apply their knowledge and skills in order to solve the real life problems of which the student will encounter in their professional lives. Additionally, service learning prepares students for their future responsibility and professional roles- such programs introduce students to workplace environment, which helps them adjust in any workplace environment in a very short span of time. Another service learning importance is that it enhances personality development of students and improves their workplace skills and abilities. Another merit of service-learning programs is that it allows students to translate their theory learning into practice, which is a very positive aspect of service learning. Service learning not only provides opportunities to the students to get experience of real work but also help them enrich learning and renew communities. Colleges and universities should maintain such resources, which they can use to provide learning opportunities to the students. Service learning has become a necessity for the success of students in professional life(. Service learning eliminates prepares students mentally for work. One more thing, for which service learning seems essential at college level, is that it enables students identify the roles, which they will need to play in society in future. When students engage in community activities, they become aware of their social roles and responsibilities in a very young stage of life. It is a fact that a society can
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Reality of Unification Theory Introduction Unification means: finding the similarities, finding the limiting physical constants, finding the key numbers, coupling the key physical constants, coupling the key physical concepts, coupling the key physical properties, minimizing the number of dimensions, minimizing the number of inputs. This is a very lengthy process. In all these cases observations, interpretations, experiments and imagination play a key role. The main difficulty is with interpretations and observations. At fundamental level understanding the observed new coincidences and confirming the observed coincidences seem to be a very tough job. Constructing semi empirical relations among the physical constants of various interdisciplinary branches of physics with all possible interpretations may help in resolving the issues. Which way/method is the best will be decided by future experiments, observations and interpretations. As it is interconnected with all branches of physics, Ã¢â¬Ësemi empirical approachÃ¢â¬â¢ se ems be the easiest and shortcut way. It sharpens and guides human thinking ability in understanding the reality of unification. For any theoretical concept or mathematical model or semi empirical relation, Ã¢â¬ËworkabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ is more important than its inner beauty and Ã¢â¬ËworkabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ is the base of any semi empirical approach. In this paper by introducing the unified mass unit the authors made an attempt to fit and understand the origin of the nuclear charge radius, the PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant and the strong coupling constant in a unified approach that connects gravity and strong interaction via the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of proton and electron. Finally by considering the proton rest energy and the nuclear charge radius the authors made an attempt to fit the semi empirical mass formula energy coefficients in a very simple way. To fit the nuclear charge radius, the PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant and the strong coupling constant It is well known that e, c and G play a vital role in fundamental physics. With these 3 constants space-time curvature concepts at a charged particle surface can be studied. Similar to the Planck mass an interesting unified mass unit can be constructed in the following way. (1) Note that plays a crucial role in microscopic physics as well cosmology. It is having a long history. It was first introduced by the physicist George Johnstone Stoney . He is most famous for introducing the term Ã¢â¬ËelectronÃ¢â¬â¢as the Ã¢â¬Ëfundamental unit quantity of electricityÃ¢â¬â¢. With this mass unit in unification program with a suitable proportionality it may be possible to represent the characteristic mass of any elementary charge. It can be considered as the seed of galactic matter or galactic central black hole. It can also be considered as the seed of any cosmic structure. If 2 such oppositely charged particles annihilates, a large amount of energy can be released. It is well assumed that free space is a reservoir for pair particles creation. If so under certain extreme conditions at the vicinity of massive stars or black holes, a very high energy radiation can be seen to be emitted by the virtue of pair annihilation of . Note that the basic concept of uni fication is to understand the origin of Ã¢â¬ËmassÃ¢â¬â¢ of any particle. Mass is the basic property in Ã¢â¬ËgravitationÃ¢â¬â¢ and charge is the basic property in Ã¢â¬ËatomicityÃ¢â¬â¢. So far no model established a cohesive relation in between Ã¢â¬Ëelectric chargeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmassÃ¢â¬â¢ of any Ã¢â¬Ëelementary particleÃ¢â¬â¢. From astrophysics point of view the fundamental questions to be answered are: 1) Without charge, is there any independent existence to Ã¢â¬ËmassÃ¢â¬â¢ of any star? 2) Is black hole Ã¢â¬â a neutral body or electrically a neutralized body? To understand these questions the authors made an attempt to construct the above unified mass unit. The subject of final unification is having a long history. After the nucleus was discovered in 1908, it was clear that a new force was needed to overcome the electrostaticÃ repulsion of the positively chargedÃ protons. Otherwise the nucleus could not exist. Moreover, the force had to be strong enough to squeeze the protons into a volume of size 10Ã¢Ëâ15 meter. In general the wordÃ¢â¬ËstrongÃ¢â¬â¢is used since the strong interaction is the Ã¢â¬Å"strongestÃ¢â¬ of the four fundamental forces. Its observed strength is around 102 times that of theÃ electromagnetic force, some 105times as great as that of theÃ weak force, and about 10 39 times that ofÃ gravitation. The aim of unification is to understand the relation that connects Ã¢â¬ËgravityÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËmassÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËchargeÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ëmicroscopic space-time curvatureÃ¢â¬â¢. Many scientists addressed this problem in different ways [2-4]. The authors also made many attempts in their previousl y published papers [5-11]. Experimentally observed nuclear charge radius [12-15] can be fitted with the following strange and simple unified relation. (2) Here can be considered as the Schwarzschild radius [16,17] of the proposed new mass unit . (3) Whether the expression playing a Ã¢â¬Ëkey unified roleÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëonly a fitting roleÃ¢â¬â¢ to be confirmed. With a great accuracy the famous PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant can be fitted with the following relation. (4) Recommended value of and the error is 0.189%. From relations (1) and (2) above relation can be simplified into the following simple form. (5) Comparing this with the standard definition, (6) where is the fine structure ratio. Let (7) Proceeding further qualitatively and quantitatively currently believed strong coupling constant  can be fitted with the following relation. (8) Its recommended value is 0.11847 and uncertainty is ppb. Now the characteristic nuclear force can be expressed as follows. (9) Note that can be considered as the limiting magnitude of any kind of force. Similarly can be considered as the limiting magnitude of any kind of power [1,20,21]. To fit and co-relate the semi empirical mass formula energy coefficients In nuclear physics, the semi-empirical mass formula is used to approximate the mass and various other properties of an atomic nucleus. As the name suggests, it is based partly on theory and partly on empirical measurements [23-24]. The theory is based on the liquid drop model proposed by George Gamow, which can account for most of the terms in the formula and gives rough estimates for the values of the coefficients. It was first formulated in 1935 by German physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker, and although refinements have been made to the coefficients over the years, the structure of the formula remains the same today. In the following formulae, let be the total number of nucleons, Z the number of protons, and the number of neutrons. The mass of an atomic nucleus is given by (10) where and are the rest mass of a proton and a neutron, respectively, and is the binding energy of the nucleus. The semi-empirical mass formula states that the binding energy will take the following form. (11) Its modern representation is (12) Here = volume energy coefficient, is the surface energy coefficient, is the coulomb energy coefficient, is the asymmetry energy coefficient and is the pairing energy coefficient. By maximizing with respect to , one can find the number of protons of the stable nucleus of atomic weight as, (13) This is roughly for light nuclei, but for heavy nuclei there is an even better agreement with nature. Now with the following two energy units semi empirical mass formula energy coefficients can be fitted in the following way. Let (14) where, (15) The coulombic energy coefficient can be expressed as (16) The asymmetry energy coefficient can be expressed as (17) The pairing energy coefficient can be expressed as (18) The surface energy coefficient can be expressed as (19) The volume energy coefficient can be expressed as (20) Thus (21) For light and heavy atoms (including super heavy stable isotopes), proton-nucleon stability relation can be expressed with the following semi empirical relation. Clearly speaking by considering its corresponding stable mass number can be estimated directly. (22) where can be considered as the stable mass number of (23) Please see table-1 for fitting the proton number and its corresponding stable mass number. Table-1: To fit the stable mass numbers of S.No 1 21 44.8 2 29 63.3 3 37 82.6 4 47 107.9. 5 53 123.9 6 60 142.8 7 69 168.0 8 79 197.3 9 83 209.4 10 92 237.3 11 100 263.0 12 112 303.0 13 118 323.7 See table-2 for the comparison of the semi empirical mass formula energy coefficients. See table-3 for the calculated semi empirical mass formula nuclear binding energy. Table-2: Existing and proposed SEMF binding energy coefficients Existing energy coefficients Proposed energy coefficients Table-3: To fit the SEMF binding energy with the proposed energy coefficients in MeV in MeV 26 56 490.9 492.254 28 62 544.8 545.259 34 84 725.3 727.341 50 118 1005.6 1004.950 60 142 1184.3 1185.145 79 197 1562.9 1559.40 82 208 1634.8 1636.44 92 238 1818.9 1801.693 Discussion and conclusions The main object of unification is to understand the origin of elementary particles rest mass, magnetic moments and their forces. Right now and till today Ã¢â¬Ëstring theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ with 4 + 6 extra dimensions not in a position to explain the unification of gravitational and non-gravitational forces. More clearly speaking it is not in a position to bring down the Planck scale to the nuclear size. Note thatÃ general relativityÃ does not throw any light on the Ã¢â¬Ëmass generationÃ¢â¬â¢ of charged particles. It only suggests that space-time is curved near the massive celestial objects. More over it couples the cosmic (dust) matter with geometry. But how matter/dust is created? Why and how elementary particle possesses both charge and mass? Such types of questions are not being discussed in the frame work of general relativity. The first step in unification is to understand the origin of theÃ rest massÃ of a charged elementary particle. Second step is to understand the combined effects of its electromagnetic (or charged) and gravitational interactions. Third step is to understand its behavior with surroundings when it is created. Fourth step is to understand its behavior with cosmic space-time or other particles. Right from its birth to death, in all these steps the underlying fact is that whether it is a strongly interacting particle or weakly interacting particle, it is having some rest mass. To understand the first two steps somehow one can implement the gravitational constant in sub atomic physics. In this regard can be considered as the natureÃ¢â¬â¢s given unified mass unit. To bring down theÃ Planck massÃ scale to the observed elementary particles mass scale certainly a large scale factor is required. In this regard, the electromagnetic and gravitational force ratio of proton and electron can be considered as the natureÃ¢â¬â¢s given universal scale factor. Thinking positively the proposed relations for fitting the nuclear charge radius, the PlanckÃ¢â¬â¢s constant and strong the coupling constant can be considered for further analysis positively.
Friday, January 17, 2020
The way a company organizes and manages its workforce has increasingly become a source of competitive advantage Summers, 1 994), and for Lincoln it is no different. Lincoln Electrics competitive advantage is their most positive aspect revealed in the assigned case study that is embodied through its rewards system and human resource management techniques, along with quality management techniques Of value innovation and continual cost reductions to make Lincoln so successful, even through hard economic times. Competitive advantage has contain ally shifted over time.What is an advantage today may not be tomorrow; however, it seems that in the assigned case study that Lincoln Electric has created a system that makes the intention nearly irrelevant (Prefer, Whatnot, & Essentialness, 1995). Competing in an industry that is highly price-competitive and where price variations on standard items amounts to only one to two percent it immediately creates a realization that to sustain continual h igh performance, Lincoln Electric must have a business model built on creating a continual competitive advantage (Lincoln Electric, 1994).A competitive advantage is formed when a firm can add value through a strategy that isn't being simultaneously implemented by a competitor or is able to do so where another firm has failed to duplicate the benefits of such strategy Assonance's, 2008). The human resource techniques used at Lincoln Electric are a major key to its success and are what has helped drive Lincoln Electrics ability to gain a competitive advantage and continual high performance.It is suggested that there are sixteen different elements that help a company achieve a competitive advantage through its people to include: incentive pay, high wages, employment security, selectivity in recruiting, employee ownership, information sharing, participation and empowerment, promotion from within, training and skill development, symbolic egalitarianism, wage compression, names and job re design, cross-utilization and cross-training, long-term perspective, measurement of the practices, and overarching philosophy (Summers, 1994).From the assigned case study on Lincoln Electric, nearly every one of these techniques is being utilized, especially incentive pay, high and cross-utilization/ cross-training. One of the basic functions of Lincoln Electrics management system is a incentive-based compensation for employees (Houses, 1995). The incentive system is a key driver/ element used at Lincoln Electric that drives the employee's high productivity (Brown, 1992).In the case study, it is revealed hat Lincoln incentive pay system utilizes four elements that are suggested to be vital to success: it eliminates raises based upon seniority or cost-of- living, places everyone on some form of incentive pay, gradually increases the pay percentage, and it utilizes quality and customer satisfaction (Brown, 1992). The incentive system at Lincoln Electric rates employees on output, qual ity, dependability and ideas/ cooperation (Harris & Klein, 1993). Throughout this case study, we see fact after fact indicating the importance of the piecework pay incentive system utilized at Lincoln Electric (Harris &Klein, 1993) and how it keeps the employees motivated. One example shown in the case study is the interview with Jimmy Roberts, a 47 year old drill press operator, who stated that the bonus distribution plan along with biweekly pay Were the reasons for such high productivity (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Pay at Lincoln Electric is industry leading, and hourly shop workers with a high school education can earn around ninety thousand dollars a year between hourly pay and incentives/ bonus pay (Harris & Klein, 1993) and this has helped form a company with a highly motivated workforce (Schuler &MacMillan, 1984). Tying into the reward compensation system, beyond the piece-work pay, is the ability to obtain additional wages through knowledge sharing/ suggestions. According to t he case study, the value of suggestions for improvements results in recommendations for high performance scores that ultimately determine an individual's incentive bonus amount (Lincoln Electric, 1994). This type of system of Ã¢â¬Å"pay-for-knowledgeÃ¢â¬ promotes investment in firm-specific human capital that has helped improve organizational productivity though a workforce that is both multi;skilled and flexible (Guthrie, 2000).A study conducted by Guthrie (2000) revealed that the pay systems that were primarily Ã¢â¬Å"skilled basedÃ¢â¬ (primarily incentive based plans) were far less likely to have employee turnover than those jobs that were group based (strictly wage based plans), thus reinforcing the elemental need to gain a competitive advantage (Summer, 1994) such as that seen at in the assigned case study on Lincoln Electric.Tying into this concept of a reward compensation system is the notable fact mentioned in the case study that Lincoln Electrics employees earn nearly twice as much a year as other factory workers in the Cleveland, Ohio area Lincoln electric 1994). This accounts for the second element that Lincoln Electrics management meets in creating a competitive advantage. Lincoln Electrics wage system, part from hourly pay and part from the previously mentioned incentive pay, meets the need of Masses,/s (Theory Z) hierarchy need of self-actualization (an individual's need for success) (Harris & Klein, 1993).Since this is the last step on Mascots hierarchy this indicated that all other needs are met below it as well (Harris & Klein, 1 993) and since Lincoln Electric meets its employees needs they feel no urgency to leave the company which leads us into the third key human resource element that creates a competitive advantage for Lincoln Electric: long-term, stable employment (summers, 1994). Lincoln Electrics quality management utilizes a continual practice of long- term employment security that has also been a key element of its competitive success (Katz, 1998).Motivating employees can take many forms and the difference between some of the best managed companies versus other companies is their individual methods of implementing their accompanied management techniques (Harris & Klein, 1993). In this case study it mentions that Lincoln Electric has not laid anyone off since World War II (Lincoln Electric, 1 994) which encompasses part of the accompanied management technique of motivating through superb human resource management (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Additional proof is given of a stable workforce in the case study showing that turnover is less than four percent for employees who have been on the job for eighteen months or longer (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Not laying anyone off for over forty years and the use of a guaranteed employment policy has created a waiting list of applicants at Lincoln Electric since nineteen hundred ND thirty-three (Harris & Klein, 1993).There are negative consequences of down (right) sizing, using contingent work forces, minimizing labor costs, outsourcing, and temporary/contract workers (Stevens, 2001 ) which Lincoln has managed to avoid through its practice of guaranteed employment. The use of this policy has created a proclamation that people are Lincoln most valuable assets (Stevens, 2001) which is reinforced by the founding principles of the company that after the customer the employee is the second most important person, even above the stockholders (Lincoln Electric, 1994).The fourth element that is observed in the assigned case study is that of its Lincoln Electrics selective job placement/ recruitment processes. Competitive pressures, greater recognition of human resources as a potential source of competitive advantage, and changing workforce demographics have made the hiring process more vigorous than ever for management (Boswell, Rolling, Lupine, & Monomania, 2003).The case study of Lincoln Electric reveals a company policy of promotion from within since ninet een- forty-four, that external hiring is only permitted for entry-level positions, and hat final selection of job candidates is made by the hiring supervisor after a committee consisting of the Vice Presidents and supervisors interview candidates and is approved by the personnel department (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Harris and Clinker (1993) give an additional account to the process in that it is a very vigorous one where each applicant is first screened by personnel and then is interviewed by four vice presidents who must all agree on the applicant. Each applicant is judged on their desire for success, evidence of dependability, and skills valuable to the current job (Harris &Clinker, 1993). It is suggested that management circles for a long time have known that promoting from within is good for employee morale and further more is beneficial to the company since the employee is already familiar with the ins-and-outs of the company and is well acclimated to its overall culture (Hoist & Klein, 2002).Since opportunity for promotion or advancement appears to be an important driver of attraction it is evident that this conceptual element is very apart of the Lincoln Electric accompanied management process that has helped it to maintain a competitive advantage (Boswell, et al. 2003). This also covers the element of promotion from within Summers' (1994) sixteen elements to promote a company's competitive advantage. Another competitive advantage element that is evident in the assigned case study on Lincoln Electric is the promotion of employee ownership.First the Company promotes an employee stock ownership plan that has resulted in employee ownership of fifty percent of the common stock with seventy-five percent of the employees participating in the program (Lincoln Electric, 1994). A project at HP experimented with the use of stock payments as an incentive here it stock was offered for meeting completion dates and the ending result was that the project was completed six months ahead of time (Beer, Cannon, Baron, & Dailey, 2004).While a survey at the conclusion of the experiment revealed that seventy percent of the employees felt they would have worked just as hard on the project without the incentive program, sixty percent of the employees surveyed recommended that incentive programs be used with other projects at HP (Beer, Cannon, Baron, & Dailey, 2004) providing further support that stock ownership can promote growth and a competitive advantage as a whole.Second the case study on Lincoln electric reveals that employee ownership is utilized through idea sharing and employee suggestions (Lincoln Electric, 1994). This point focuses on employee ownership as well as information sharing, and the participation and empowerment of Summers' (1994) sixteen factors that help a company's competitive advantage. From the earliest years of the company James Lincoln encouraged employees to be involved and promoted an employee Ã¢â¬Å"Advisory BoardÃ¢â¬ that has met every two weeks with the Chief Executive Officer (Lincoln Electric, 1994).It is suggested for employees to remain engaged and productive that their input be respected by management which encourages employees to participate in decision- making and creates a sense of belonging, thereby increasing their engagement and participation in future growth Of the company (Marko's & survived, 2010). Empirical evidence in a study of advisory boards backed the theory that advisory boards help promote growth in at least a small way with eighty-three percent stating that it was at least somewhat effective to very effective and only seventeen percent stating it was a waste of time (Morsel & Poster, 2002).Additionally a number of studies have found positive relationships between employee engagement (such as Lincoln Electrics employee Advisory Board) and increased organizational performance (Marko's & Survived, 2010). It is apparent that the advisory board suggestions have had an influence on Lincoln Electrics success, with nearly where fifty out of two to three hundred suggestions are implemented on a monthly basis (Harris & Clinker, 1993).Supplemental support can be made in the fact that Lincoln Electric continually reveals dividends to stock holders that exceeded eleven dollars a share and eave reached nearly thirty dollars per share (Lincoln Electric, 1994). A more subtle, yet still evident, element of Lincoln Electrics quality management that promotes a competitive advantage is its promotion of training and development. Harrington (1998) states that to maintain a company's most valuable resource, its people, training is necessary.Reality is that no company can maintain high performance without a knowledgeable workforce. In the Lincoln Electric Case study production workers are given a short on-the-job training when first hired, sale agents, already college radiates, are given on-the-job training in the plant, which helps them sell products and reduce welding costs, followed by a period of work and training at one of the regional sales offices (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Giving employees appropriate training to perform their job functions increases core skills and knowledge which in turn increases their confidence allowing them to work with very little if any supervision (Marko's & Survived, 2010). This may be evidence as to why Lincoln is able to retain high performance while first line supervisors generally supervise any. Veer up to a hundred employees with animal interaction as stated in the case study (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Previous studies have shown that training has a positive impact on organizational performance and is associated with a company's productivity and profitability (Hansson, 2007). An empirical study, utilizing four different mathematically tested models resulted in a the coefficient of the Ã¢â¬Å"training variableÃ¢â¬ that remained positive through all four models giving evidential proof that company training is linked t o higher performance on a accompanied level (Danville del Valley, ?Engel Aster Castillo, Rodriguez-Treated, 009).Additionally the case study points out that Lincoln Electric created a welding school in nineteen-seventeen on the recommendations of the Advisory board that is still in existence today, adding to continual education and the ability to learn and understand the company's primary products that revolve around the welding industry (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Saba, a Lincoln Electric Vice president, is quoted at the conclusion of the case study stating Ã¢â¬Å"Management has encouraged education, technical publishing, and long range programs that have resulted in industry growth, thereby assuring racket potential for The Lincoln Electric Company' further emphasizing Lincoln Electric commitment to training and knowledge that has help it maintain its high performance over the years; an element made in Summers' (1994) key elements to maintaining a competitive advantage.Symbolic egali tarianism, while not defined directly, is definitely revealed in the assigned case study on Lincoln Electric. Many firms that are known for achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage have some form of an egalitarianism environment according to Prefer, Whatnot, & Essentialness (1995). Symbolic egalitarianism is promoting equality; it is a way of signaling o both the internal and external environment that the company has comparative equality (Prefer, Whatnot, & Essentialness, 1995).In the case study there is mention of one cafeteria where both blue collar and white collar employees all eat in the same cafeteria and there are no reserved parking spaces either, even one of the vice presidents has to park on the far end of the parking lot when arriving late one morning after giving on off-site speech that morning (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Another company who also utilizes both Of these same characteristics is ANNUM where the executive dining room was laminated, everyone eats togeth er and there are also no Ã¢â¬Å"reservedÃ¢â¬ parking spaces (Prefer, Whatnot, & Essentialness, 1995) both signs of egalitarianism.Symbolic egalitarianism helps promote a competitive advantage because there are no status distinctions to overcome and information/ ideas are more free-flowing (Prefer, Hating, & Essentialness, 1995). Another way Lincoln Electric promotes competitive advantage that has helped them maintain high performance is through their lack of a corporate structure. While, it is pointed out within the assigned case study that at one point business school researchers created an organizational chart, management felt it was disruptive and no formal chart is used within the company today (Lincoln Electric, 1994).Also, the aforementioned employee stock purchase plan can also be considered a form of symbolic egalitarianism. There is evidence cited by companies showing that employees believe the existence of such stock ownership plans and other profit-sharing plans do in fact promote egalitarianism within their company (Moran, 2010). Empirical evidence also suggests that open office layouts encourage and facilitate inter- class interaction by reducing both status differentials and physical barriers (Moran, 2010).The case analysis alludes to the old plant of Lincoln Electric that runs like Ã¢â¬Å"clockworkÃ¢â¬ because of integrated layout and non-exclusivity of the design which helps to additionally support the fact that Lincoln Electrics high performance through competitive advantage is obtained through use of symbolic forms of egalitarianism. Wage compression is somewhat interpreted in the assigned case analysis on Lincoln Electric.At Lincoln Electric base pay is deemphasized and the reward pay system is emphasized more greatly, as seen in the fact that some employees make up to ninety thousand dollars a year on base wages that anger no more than nine to sixteen dollars an hour (Harris & Klein, 1993). Even at sixteen dollars an hour at forty hou rs per week for fifty-two weeks of pay that only amounts to roughly thirty-three-thousand dollars a year at the top and for those on the low end (nine dollar an hour) that's roughly on nineteen-thousand a year.This means that someone making ninety thousand dollars a year at Lincoln Electric earns only twenty to thirty-seven percent of their pay from hourly pay and anywhere from sixty three to eighty percent of their pay from the compensation system. Since workers from new hires to hose close to retirement are all condensed into a base salary range between nineteen and thirty-three thousand dollars this signifies that there is in fact wage compression at Lincoln Electric with emphasis on pay being directed towards the piecework pay system.According to the case study incentive pay has actually averaged ninety percent of pay since nineteen hundred thirty-four and the average worker makes just over sixteen dollars an hour which is about two dollars better than the average manufacturing wage in Cleveland, Ohio (Lincoln Electric, 1994). One Of the benefits of Wage compression is that it fuels high performance commendations; people are not constantly worried about their compensation, whether they are getting paid enough, and are not continually focusing on re-bargaining their pay scale (Prefer, Hating, & Essentialness, 1995).A 2002 study investigated wage dispersion and training in Europe finding that training was more frequent when wage compression was higher (Hansson, 2007) emphasizing the earlier point of Lincoln Electric promotions of training. This study shows direct relation between wage compressions and training revealing that workers are more knowledgeable and well trained hen wages are compressed, both pointed out in the Lincoln Electric case study.The overall De-emphasis on pay through wage compression helps employees focus more on organizational goals and creating meaningful colleague relationship that work towards organizational success, producing higher overall performance (Prefer, Hating, & Essentialness, 1995). Other elements included in Summers' (1994) key elements to maintaining a competitive advantage, which is the prime component of Lincoln Electrics abilities to maintain continually high performance are: teams and job redesign and cross-utilization and cross-training.Teams and job redesign, as well as cross-utilization/ cross-training aren't really focused on within the case study assigned on Lincoln electric however it is an essential element in today's ever changing global environment (Limit, T;KC, Kemp, 2008). According to Harrington (1998) Lincoln Electric does invest heavily in cross-training employees in many different aspects in an effort to make employees more valuable to the company.While the case study did not mention anything about cross-training another case study points out that at Lincoln Electric nearly everyone must complete the welding program; since it is the Meany's main product line and to graduate from t he program a requirement is that the attendee must materialize a recommendation of how to innovate the product (Prefer, Hating, & Essentialness, 1995). Long-term perspective and measurement of practices were not directly pointed at within the assigned Lincoln case study either but are implied within it.Lincoln could not have the long-term, high performance it has had without looking to the future and continually reengaging itself to measure its standards of practice. Overreaching philosophy is another topic not directly it upon in the case analysis of Lincoln Electric but this philosophy is one of bringing everything together. Various things from sales, to training, to production, to finance are all discussed within the analysis and this underlining principle is a must for any company to succeed, because if the left hand and right hand don't work together then little can get accomplished.Beyond these competitive advantage elements described there are a few other notable items reveal ed in the case study that promote Lincoln Electrics continued high performance over the years to include: value innovation, costs deduction, avoiding an employee union workshop, and no long-term debt (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Value innovation is essentially the simultaneous pursuit of differentiation and low cost (Leave, 2005).The case study shows instances of Lincoln Electric differentiating itself from the competition in the advancement of its small motors as well as its contribution in the welding Inner-Shield process. Additionally, it is mentioned within the case study that cost reduction programs are in place around many areas including shipping, cost reductions around material procurement and purchasing, accountability o reduce scrap, energy conservation, and maintain overall initial product quality (Lincoln Electric, 1994) which all contribute to providing low costs, high quality products to end consumers.It is noted that value innovation can occur anywhere within a company's activities to include: products, services, delivery, costs, pricing, and the business model itself (Leave, 2005). Another minor item that can be considered minor contributions to the high performance of Lincoln Electric in the case study is the avoidance of employee unions.In the assigned case study James Lincoln was quoted as eying that Unions selfishly attempt Ã¢â¬Å"to better its position at the expense of the people it must serveÃ¢â¬ but understood that it was a Ã¢â¬Å"natural reactions of human beingsÃ¢â¬ to counter the abuses of management with abuses of their own and emphasized that labor and management are Ã¢â¬Å"not warring camps; they are parts of one organization in which they must, and should, cooperate fully and happily' (Lincoln Electric, 1 994); a founding management strategy that has warded off any attempt for employees to unionize.Strong evidence is supported suggesting that higher union coverage within a company educes investment opportunities and are more c apital intensive than those firms that are Nan-unionized (Brogans, Deere, & Tracy, 1994). Avoiding union of the labor force has allowed Lincoln Electric to avoid these capital intensive investments. Finally management's ability to keep the company running with no long- term debt accrual is evident in the assigned case study on Lincoln Electric that has helped to contribute to their high performance.When there is an unexpected shortfall of cash flow within a company empirical studies have shown that there is a significant negative price reaction for outstanding debt ND equity (Achieve & Easter-wood, 1997). Additional empirical studies show that firms that secure more debt tend to record lower earnings within that fiscal year and the year following (Achieve & Sisterhood, 1997).In the assigned case study it is noted that risk associated with Lincoln Electric stock is minimal because the company has little debt in capital structure, extremely stable earnings year after year which encour ages investments in the company, until nineteen-eighty Lincoln Electric borrowed no money, and currently liabilities consist mainly of accounts payable and short-term accruals (Lincoln Electric, 1994). These practices have helped the company maintain high performance as cash flow is available to keep the company running, like a Ã¢â¬Å"well-oiled machineÃ¢â¬ .The number Of things Lincoln Electric does that helps drive its high performance seems almost endless. More than sixteen different quality management elements that help drive Lincoln Electrics competitive advantage have already been identified. The key to any business is the ability to adapt and change; this has helped Lincoln Electric maintain the high performance demonstrated in the assigned case study. Even some of the aforementioned topics, such as training, could always be improved upon.Having an understanding of certain potential weaknesses observed in the case study will allow for recommendations to be made that can aid in Lincoln Electrics continued high performance levels. Recommendations for Continued Success Lincoln Electric is no doubt innovative in its management techniques but there are a number of concerns that are addressed throughout the assigned case study including: incentive system, education and advancement, and employee power. While each of these has been represented as the LincolnElectrics strengths, it is recognized that a company maintains a competitive advantage though readdressing the source of the competitive advantage (Prefer, Hating, & Essentialness, 1995), or in other-words' realign company strategy to maintain competitive advantage as markets change. A simple change in economic or industry conditions can change a company's source of competitive advantage (Consonants, 2008), even when certain management practices have been uncontested in the past.In the assigned Lincoln Electric case study this was evident during the three year recession room nineteen-hundred eighty-one to nineteen-hundred eighty three when sales plummeted thirty percent one year and then another sixteen percent the proceeding year, and through strategic adaptive change the company prevailed without laying off one single worker (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Recent uncertainty has surfaced in regards to the supply of finances with the sub- prime crisis of 2008 (Assonance's, 2008) along with a changing global economy over the past two decades promote additional need for companies to remain flexible and adaptive.It is recommended that focus of restructuring Lincoln Electrics management practices around these three key areas will help Lincoln Electric remain adaptive to future cyclical changes: . Incentive system Ã¢â¬â Wages, Bonuses, & Benefits There are a few key indicators within the case study on Lincoln Electric that point to some concern over the current wage and incentive pay systems. Based on the contradictions even within the case study it is surprising how successful Lincoln ince ntive pay system has been in the past.The case study point outs that, while the past percentage of bonus pay has resulted in high compensation, employees expressed concerns that the bonuses arena rising n accordance with profits and that today's workforce is sharing in a bonus pool that is higher than in the last few decades (Lincoln Electric, 1994). Expectancy theory predicts that bonus pools that are based on a predetermined percentage will be more effective and empirical studies have proven that when a bonus pool is set as a percentage of company revenue it significantly increases revenue and thus the money allocated to the bonus pool (Long, 2000).Based on this study it is recommended, that to maintain the current employee satisfaction and to allow employees greater access to refit sharing, that Lincoln Electric create a formula for profit sharing where a pre-determined mathematical formula will levy the size of the bonus pool so that employees have a guarantee of the percentage that they will receive to help improve moral.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Education in America has progressed through time in many different aspects, both in form but also of importance. In 1647, it was determined that education in America was a must. In these very early stages the focus was not so much about a well rounded education as it is today, but more so to be sure the children were able to read the bible and learn basic information about their religion. Even though advanced we being made in 1779, Thomas Jefferson implemented a two track education system. This system was set up so that not everyone was given the right to learn, only a few of the work force (Historical TImeline web). It is my opinion that this was the first sign of true power of education. As the year progressed forward we see again in the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s that education is held from a certain group of people, those who were slaves. Frederick Douglas shared in his biography of the great struggle he had to endure to become educated. 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